1/4 Galloway Hit and Miss engine

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marksavoca

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Here is my build of a 1/4 scale Galloway Hit and Miss engine based on Ministeam castings. I am a hobby machinist and welcome all feedback. I try to capture my setups and approach for each step. I started a few weeks ago, so I'm going to catch you all up in the next few posts. I'm also new to this forum, so I apologize in advance if I break any rules or not follow convention.


The kit:
IMG_2760 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

It is much larger than my previous engine, Little Brother by Paul Breish:
IMG_2776 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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I got started by machining the bottom of the base flat. I used a combination of mill vice and clamping to hold the base measuring up from the table to get even end-to-end.

IMG_2882

You can see that a machined around the clamps, moved them and finished up.
IMG_2888
 

marksavoca

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I started by cleaning up the edges to create a surface to clamp.

IMG_2941 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Using some parallels I put it back in the vise to machine the top edges.
IMG_2942 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_2945 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Now I can flip it over and surface the bottom. Again using parallels to keep it flat.
IMG_2947 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Once it was surfaced, I machined the lip that will eventually keep the bearing centered.

IMG_2957 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Using a combination of the vice and clamps, and a 30 degree wedge, the base was prepared for machining the bearing surfaces.

IMG_2965 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I machined them to match the bearing caps. You will notice that because I did not narrow the caps yet, they interfere with the base.
IMG_2978 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

So I put the caps back in the vise and cut down the one side. Now it sits in place.IMG_2985 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Next I cut them in two, and machined the cut side flat.

IMG_2998 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Surfaced and drilled for the mounting screws.

IMG_3005 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I used the bearing caps to mark for the base. I then used the center drill, drilled and tapped.

IMG_3020 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3023 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3033 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Once screwed in place, I mounted the base back in the milling machine to clean up the edges of the caps and to add the details.

IMG_3056 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3058 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Caps are done for now. I will add the grease cups once I determine what I'm going to use.
 

marksavoca

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Hi Mark, welcome to the forum. Can you tell us a bit about yourself and your machines?
Thanks deeferdog.

I bought a Sherline 4000 lathe and milling head about 25 yrs ago. Used mostly for building remote control cars & trucks. Put away until a few years ago when my wife bought me the Little Brother casting kit. It came out ok. Would run for short periods. I think it has fuel delivery issues.

Next I built a PM Research #5 steam engine and PMR #1 Boiler. Both came out nice. I then invested in a larger lathe and milling machine. Grizzly G0768 8x16 lathe and a Littlemachineshop HiTorque mill. I built the PMR #3 steam engine with the new equipment and now onto the 1/4 scale Galloway.

I'm just a hobbyist. Learned mostly from doing, and redoing and searching online. Learned a lot from watching TinkerJohn on youtube.

I'm also into photography, so I have LOTS of pictures. Most are on flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/marksavoca/albums)

IMG_1871 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

deeferdog

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Hi Mark, Your machines are similar to mine. I had your mill for a couple of years and learned everything I know about milling on it. (That's not a lot) I recently upgraded to the Optimum BF20 (Grizzly G0704) for a bit more power. My lathe is similar size. Same as you, just a hobbyist, at the moment I'm building a Bolton 12 steam engine. The drawings are for a casting kit but the cost of it decided me to try and build it from scratch, so far it is going OK. I really like the work you have posted so far and will follow it with interest. It's easy to see that you are into photography by the quality of your shots. If you see some of mine you'll see that I still have a way to go.
Cheers, Peter.
 

marksavoca

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Much of the measurements are referenced to the center line of the cylinder. Because the centerline of the cylinder is not something I can measure from (it is just a point in space), I defined two surfaces to use. Marking the center of the bearing caps and measuring up from the bottom I determined that the center line is 2.040" above the bottom surface. By measuring side to side and finding the center I determined the center line is 1.500" in from the cam/pushrod side that I surfaced earlier. Hopefully the pictures help show this.

I will use these surfaces as references from now on. I would like feedback if there is a better approach for setting references that I can measure from, rather than a point in space.

IMG_3069 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3071 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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I built the crankshaft from 1/2" drill rod and 3/8" x 5/8" steel bar. Machined, 'glued' with red Loctite and pinned.

Started with the Crank webs. Rough cut, milled to length.

IMG_3084 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3085 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3086 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

After laying out the holes for the journal, I used the 4 jaw chuck, center drilled, step drilled and finally used a 1/2 reem. Repeated for the second web.

IMG_3102 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3103 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Next I cut the 1/2" drill rod to rough length. Here you can see all the rough parts.

IMG_3106 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I put the webs back in the 4 jaw chuck to machine the shoulders. I used the dial indicator to reset the center.

IMG_3110 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3115 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Here you can see the shoulder.

IMG_3117 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Back into the 4-jaw for the other side. Here you can see I used a parallel while mounting the web. This will ensure the surface if square with the turning plane. Make sure you remove the parallels Before you turn on the lathe!

IMG_3119 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

The completed webs:

IMG_3125 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

After test fitting the completed webs and journals I attempted to Loctite it all together. While I was assembling it, I started to struggle and felt like the Loctite was going to setup before I had everything positioned, so I pulled it apart and wiped off the Loctite. To give myself a little more control and time, I did one web at a time. First Loctite, let it setup, pinned it and then put on the second web. This way only one web could move and I could control the spacing better.

IMG_3144 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Here is both sides Loctited and pinned. You can also see that I cleaned up / rounded the ends on the belt sander.

IMG_3156 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Here you can see the assembled unit with the pins cut down.

IMG_3225 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Cleaned up with the belt sander.

IMG_3227 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Used the mill to remove the extra material

IMG_3230 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3234 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Next I got out the hacksaw and cut out the material between the webs.

IMG_3239 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Into the Mill to clean it up

IMG_3241 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Almost done, stick with me...

IMG_3243 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Machined the keyway

IMG_3280 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

And with that we have a completed crankshaft
 

marksavoca

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I mounted the base on the angle plate and verified that it is parallel to the table. Using a center drill I step drilled each side. Only after I got to the larger drill bits did I drill through both sides. When I built the Little Brother, I drilled both sides at the same time thinking it would be aligned but it was not as accurate as I would have liked. I think the small deflection as it passed through added up by time it came out the far end. So this time I did each side separately until a had a bit that would not likely flex.

IMG_3163 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3166 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3168 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Flipped it over and drilled the other side.

IMG_3174 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

And then through both.

IMG_3178 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Using a scrap 5/8" bar I confirmed that it was centered correctly.

IMG_3186 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Onto the bearings....
 

marksavoca

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Using 7/8" Bronze I made the two main bearings. Not a lot to say. Machined the outer dimensions for the shoulder and body, center drilled, step drilled and reemed to 1/2"

IMG_3220 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3244 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3253 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

And with the Crankshaft in place.

IMG_3259 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I quickly found that the Crankshaft hits the base. Back to the mill to get a little space.

IMG_3254 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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Now that the Crankshaft is located, I can drill for the Cam shaft, Make the cam shaft and the Crank bushing to space the Crank gear.

Back onto the angle plate and squared. I generally will use both a square and measure from the edge of the angle plate to make sure everything is square to the table. I used the flat surfaces on the cam side as my reference.

Layout, center drill and drill.

IMG_3262 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Again using the 7/8" bronze I created the camshaft.

IMG_3266 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3268 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Next I made the bronze bushing

IMG_3283 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

With it all in place.

IMG_3286 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3289 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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Before mounting the Cylinder casting into the lathe I wanted to clean up the end. I first tried clamping it to the angle plate but I could not get it tight and straight. Next I tried clamping it directly to the table and like machining the base I moved the clamp as I machined around.

IMG_3301 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3306 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Now into the 4-jaw. Again, I used the dial indicator and the body of the cylinder to make sure it was true.

IMG_3319 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

With a long boring bar I machined the inner surfaces to specs.

IMG_3378 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_3381 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I then turned it around to open the other end. For this kit the cylinder liner does not go all the way to the head. The last 3/4" is the casted cylinder. For now I opened to about a tenth below the final diameter.

IMG_3385 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Next up is turning the large chuck of cast iron into the liner.

IMG_4068 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Mounted and trued, outer dimension roughed in and the center drilled out.

IMG_4070 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4147 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Quick detour. So that I know the final outside dimension, I need to bore the base that accepts the end of the cylinder liner.

Again, clamped to the angle plate and squared.

IMG_4071 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4078 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4155 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Now I can layout and machine the final outside dimensions. While I aim to use the specifications from the drawing, I need to match against reality.

IMG_4161 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Once I had the inner diameter roughed in (it will be finished once mounted in the cylinder casting) and the final outer diameters, I turned it around, re-aligned it and used a cutoff to remove the end. I plan on using this end for making the rings.

IMG_4173 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Here is the completed liner. You can see the three different diameters.

IMG_4176 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

All sitting together

IMG_4178 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4181 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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Marking out for the three bolts that will hold it together.

IMG_4183 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Once mounted on the angle plate it was too tall for the mill, so I used the drill press.

IMG_4184 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4185 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I used a reverse counterbore to counter sink.

IMG_4186 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I used a transfer punch to mark the holes. I started with the lower hole, I aligned the cylinder the best I can, knowing I was going to machine the critical locations once it was mounted to the base.

IMG_4189 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4219 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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The stock I used was a little too thick and needed to be milled

IMG_4222 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

To thread the end I need to mount into the four jaw, center with dial indicator and turn to spec. I could then use a die and thread it.

IMG_4228 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4225 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4228 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4229 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

You can see I used the chuck in the tail stock to make sure the die was square to the rod.

Next I layed out and drilled two holes. One will hold the cam follower and the other is for the governor latch.

IMG_4234 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

The cam follower was pretty straight forward. Used the lathe to center drill and drill and machined the outside to spec.

IMG_4238 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

The shaft for the cam follower

IMG_4241 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

The parts. You can see I put an angle on the end to match the drawing.

IMG_4243 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I used Loctite to mount the roller shaft to the pushrod.

IMG_4247 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Now onto the other end, started with a small steel blank, Turned it in the lathe, drilled and tapped for the pushrod.

IMG_4251 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4252 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4253 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

To the mill to drill and cut the slot.

IMG_4256 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4258 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

After using the belt sander to round off some, here is the completed part.

IMG_4260 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

A quick nut

IMG_4266 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4269 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Assembled

IMG_4271 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Completed assembly

IMG_4273 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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Now that I have the final dimensions from the pushrod, I can machine the brackets.

IMG_4275 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4279 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Once the top was surfaced, I could flip it over, using the parallels again and machine the bottom surface.

IMG_4282 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Next I machined out for the pushrod. Using the actual pushrod dimensions. Note: While I always try to machine to the drawing, I don't have the skill yet to always hit every dimension perfect. So I always try to use the actual dimensions and I try to machine items in the order to be able to use the actual dimensions.

IMG_4285 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

A nice sliding fit.

IMG_4288 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

A little old-school hacksaw to separate the two brackets.

IMG_4293 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

To make sure the sides are perpendicular to the pushrod I used a square. Once I was happy that it was square, I milled the the sides to spec.

IMG_4300 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Here are the two parts at this point.

IMG_4306 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I used the rotary table to machine the ends. I used a scrap piece of aluminum to protect the table. I had a hard time holding down the small part. with a little fussing I got it to work ok.

IMG_4307 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Back to the mill to cut the slot in the rear bracket.

IMG_4317 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Drilled...

IMG_4318 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

The complete parts.

IMG_4320 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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I'm not 100% sure this is the right thing to do, and time will tell.

After drilling for the water drain I used red Loctite to attach the Cylinder sleeve to the cylinder. This then allowed me to finish the inside surface.

To get a flat surface for the drill I used an end mill

IMG_4203 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4204 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Here you can see the light from the drain.

IMG_4207 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Red Loctite, a clamp and some time.

IMG_4327 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4358 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4360 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4364 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4368 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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Now that I have the final dimension of the cylinder, I can machine the head.

First I surfaced the top side.

IMG_4345 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4347 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Next I turned it on end and surfaced the side where the intake and exhaust will be.

IMG_4351 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Now into the four jaw, centered and faced.

IMG_4375 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4378 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4381 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Laid out the valve guides.

IMG_4382 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Into the Mill to be drilled

IMG_4386 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I created a (ugly) tool to machine the outside of the valve guides.

IMG_4388 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I used the boring head to machine the outside.

IMG_4397 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I resurfaced the top side to clean up a little.

IMG_4398 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Exhaust and intake. I measure up from the vise to make sure it was parallel to the table.

IMG_4453 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4457 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Onto the valve side. I used the reamer to ream the valve guide and to re-align for drilling the valve openings.

IMG_4458 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4460 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Next I laid out the holes for mounting the head to the cylinder.

IMG_4473 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Back to the mill, using parallels and the flat side surface. Center drilled and drilled each hole.

IMG_4474 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

IMG_4475 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Done, for now.
IMG_4476 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 

marksavoca

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To make sure the flat side of the head was parallel to the base, I used a layout stone and a 2x3 block. I put the block under the flat side of the head and used the flat side of the base to ensure they were parallel. Holding it still I used a transfer punch to mark the first hole. Then to the mill. Center drill, drill and tap.

IMG_4478 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

I then marked, drilled and tapped the opposite hole. Once the two were set, I marked and drilled the rest.

IMG_4480 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr

Some temporary hardware (will eventually get studs and nuts).

IMG_4483 by Mark Savoca, on Flickr
 
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