To add to the rest of the story, there was these 'Beehive ovens' and the earliest known examples were in what was known as West Cumberland around Workington and Maryport which oddly is yet another River Derwent. My mother's family were there but there was also lead mining and refining. I lived there for a while after National Service.
However, I somehow doubt the lack of knowledge about iron and steel making of these German émigrés. They certainly knew about adding urine etc - especially from little boys who were virgins. Again, they knew which local water was suitable and which was not.
Again, I was in Llandudno in North Wales and was down the copper mines which dated to Roman Times and I wondered just how they melted copper ore. As we know, copper takes a higher melting point to iron and there seemed little to make charcoal in the way of deciduous trees. According to the guides, brushwood was used.
However, I sometimes seriously doubt the so called today's experts because coal was mined long before the so called experts predicted.
My father was in coal workings when they found remnants of workings by the monks of Kepier which was part of Land of the Prince Bishops of the Palatinate of Durham.
I spent my formative early days amongst the Bronze Age skeletons. Today, 70 and more years later, I'm writing and looking at my boundary wall which came from the Roman Wall and the building on the other side has Anglo Saxon stones- re-cycled.
As we gain more knowledge we discover that we know less.
Interesting to write some of the local history here.